Monday, October 6, 2008

Processing (Chinese materia medica)

Processing in Chinese materia medica is the technique of altering the properties of crude medicines by such means as roasting, honey frying, wine frying, earth frying, vinegar frying, calcining, or other means. This is a kind of alchemical processing used in everyday preparation of herbal, mineral and animal medicinals. There are also more esoteric traditions of processing, including those involving , but the term is used to refer to the more common preparations. For instance, frying with wine is believed to enhance the circulatory properties of herbs. Frying with salt is believed to draw the herbal actions to the kidneys. Otherwise cooling herbs may be warmed up by heated techniques. These techniques have been applied to Western herbal medicine in the David Winston Center for Herbal Studies for the last 20 years.

The technique is somewhat similar to the Ayurvedic , although the latter technique is more complex and may involve prayers as well as physical techniques. An intriguing study of the effectiveness of the Ayurvedic equivalent of Pao Zhi was printed in the Journal of Postgrad Medicine:

Crude aconite is an extremely lethal substance. However, the science of Ayurveda looks upon aconite as a therapeutic entity. Crude aconite is always processed i.e. it undergoes 'samskaras' before being utilised in the Ayurvedic formulations. This study was undertaken in mice, to ascertain whether 'processed' aconite is less toxic as compared to the crude or unprocessed one. It was seen that crude aconite was significantly toxic to mice whereas the fully processed aconite was absolutely non-toxic . Further, all the steps in the processing were essential for complete detoxification

Po Sum On

Po Sum On is a medicated oil from Hong Kong.

The product was licensed since 1907 by the Po Sum On Medicine Factory Limited and sold in herbal stores world wide.The ointment and healing balm were invented by Kwok Cheu Nam and manufactured originally at the company's factory at 162 Tung Lo Wan Road, Causeway Bay, Hong Kong.

Active Ingredients:
* Peppermint Oil
* Dragon's Blood
* Cinnamon Oil
* Camelia Oil

Po Sum On Oil Ingredients
Peppermint Oil
Menthe haplocalyx. Peppermint oil is a volatile oil which is frozen from a solution distilled from fresh peppermint and water. According to ancient Chinese medicine books, peppermint oil's main effect is relieving headache caused by colds and flu's, primary infection of the upper respiratory canal, and sore throat, mouth ulcer, skin rash and lungs discomfort caused by fever or other epidemic diseases.

Chinese camellia Oil
Camellia sinensis . A volatile oil extracted by distilling dried camellia branches and leaves, it has a light colour and fragrance and a consistency like olive oil that gives this formulation its rich quality. According to ancient Chinese medicine books, Chinese camellia oil can eliminate chill and ease pain. It is a major ingredient for cold remedies and stomach tonic.

Dragon's Blood
Daemonorops draco, also known as Resina Draconis . According to the import medicinal herbs standards set forth by China's Ministry of Health, Dragon's Blood can stop bleeding and eases bruises. Dispels blood stasis and alleviated pain; used for fractures, strains and contusions.

Glycyrrhiza uralensis. .The dried root of liquorice, a legume. According to ancient Chinese medicine books, liquorice can eliminate heat, toxins and sputum, ease coughing, and sooth cramps and pains in the limbs.

Radix Scutellaria baicalensis. . Clears heat, treats hot sores and swellings.
Use & Safety
The oil and balm have passed the safety tests of Zhongshan University and SGS of Hong Kong. It is verified that the products cause no skin irritation or allergic reaction, and are safe and suitable for long-term use.
NB This product is suitable for external use only, for adults and children over two years old. Do not apply close to the eyes, or delicate or wounded skin. In case of accidental ingestion, seek medical attention immediately. In the event of skin allergic reaction, cease using.

If the symptoms persist after several days, stop using it and consult a doctor. Do not cover the treatment area with bandage after application.
Used commonly for relief of muscular tension in neck, shoulders and upper back.

Typical application:
apply to upper back, neck and back of head. This formula has a descending action, so caution is advised in those with low blood pressure.

Although originally formulated for the upper back and neck, it is also very effective when massaged into other areas where there is pain. One source advises adding a teasponnful to a bowl of warm water to soak hands/feet affected by arthritis.

Po Chai Pills

Po Chai Pills is a Traditional Chinese Medicine product made from several herbs formed into tiny pills about the size of buckshots. It is used as a remedy for the relief of indigestion, heartburn, vomiting, diarrohea, and bloating. It can also be used as a hangover prevention remedy.

Po Chai Pills were developed by Li Shiu Kei in Foshan, Guangdong in 1896. Following the Chinese Civil War, the Li family fled to Hong Kong and reestablished their company, Li Chung Shing Tong. However, their mainland property was nationalized. As a result there are now two manufacturers of Po Chai Pills:

*Li Chung Shing Tong Limited in Hong Kong; and
*Guangzhou Wanglaoji Pharmaceutical Company Limited in Guangzhou, China.

A mutual agreement between both parties has limited Wanglaoji's trademark rights to mainland China, while Li Chung Shing Tong has the rights to use the trademark in the rest of the world. The mainland manufacturer exports them from China as Curing Pills or Bao Ji Pills.


*Halloysitum I minera
*Rhizoma Atrach root
*Oryzae Satiae/sprout
*Herba leave
*Selerotrum Porifungal
*Radix Puepariae root
*Herba Agastaches S leaves
*Excarpium Citri/tangerined red part
*Cortex magnoliae O. bark
*Masse Fermentata Neaven leave

Plum blossom (Chinese medicine)

Plum blossom or seven star is the light tapping of an area of the body with a small sterile hammer which has seven points. This technique is a part of traditional Chinese Medicine therapy.

Peter Deadman

Peter Deadman is a traditional Chinese medicine practitioner and teacher. He co-authored ''A Manual of Acupuncture'', one of the very first textbooks for acupuncture in Western world. He is also the founder of ''The Journal of Chinese Medicine'', an English language journal concerning traditional Chinese medicine.

Pericardium (TCM)

As distinct from the Western medical concept of pericardium, this concept from Traditional Chinese Medicine is more a way of describing a set of interrelated parts than an anatomical organ.

The Pericardium is also called the "heart protector," and, for clinical purposes, is considered a yin organ paired with the yang organ San Jiao. In general theory, the Pericardium is not distinguished from the Heart. It is also the first line of defence against the Heart from External Pathogenic Influences. The Pericardium has a named for it, which reflects the health of the organ. In terms of the Five Elements, these organs are both associated with the fire element. In treatment, it is often best to approach heart problems via the Pericardium, rather than directly. The peak time for the Pericardium is from 7pm to 9pm.

Pearl powder

Pearl powder is a preparation of crushed pearls used in China for skin care, and in traditional Chinese medicine as an anti-inflammatory and detoxification agent.

Pearl powder is a finely milled powder made from freshwater pearls, which contains a number of amino acids and several minerals. It can also be made from saltwater pearls. It is considered by its proponents to help improve the appearance of the skin. A typical dose is 1 gram of pearl powder taken by mouth, traditionally mixed into water or tea, twice weekly.

Pau yuen tong

Pau Yuen Tong is a Chinese balm that allows a man to prolong the act of love making.

Pau Yuen Tong is a balm which has been passed on through succeeding generations of a Chinese Tong and was marketed in a small sector of the Asian world with very limited explanation and instruction. More recently, it has found its way into Europe with the same limited information.

Oregon College of Oriental Medicine

The Oregon College of Oriental Medicine , located in Portland, Oregon, United States, offers master's and postgraduate doctoral degrees in acupuncture and Oriental medicine. OCOM's programs are accredited by the Accreditation Commission for Acupuncture and Oriental Medicine and authorized by the Oregon Student Assistance Commission's Office of Degree Authorization to award Master of Acupuncture and Oriental Medicine and Doctor of Acupuncture & Oriental Medicine degrees.

OCOM also operates an Intern Teaching Clinic and herbal dispensary, serving the Portland metropolitan area. More than 20,000 low cost acupuncture, Chinese herbal medicine, , and shiatsu patient treatments are offered annually by the clinic, which also serves as a teaching facility for the college.

In July 2005, OCOM became the first college to graduate a cohort of .

OCOM has an active research department, and has received substantial research grants from the National Institutes of Health/NCCAM.
Current OCOM research projects include a collaborative grant with the University of Arizona to study temporomandibular joint disorder.

Nin Jiom Pei Pa Koa

King-to Nin Jiom Pei Pa Koa or more commonly, Nin Jiom Pei Pa Koa or simply Pei Pa Koa is a used for the relief of sore throat, coughs, hoarseness, and loss of voice. It is a throat demulcent and expectorant. Today, it is manufactured and sold by Nin Jiom Medicine Manufactory Limited, a Hong Kong corporation. It is available worldwide.

In the name of the company, "King-to" means "capital", referring to Beijing, and "Nin Jiom" means "in memory of my mother". "Pei Pa Koa" means "Loquat syrup".


The formula for Pei Pa Koa was originally created by Doctor Ip Tin-See, a physician for the Qing Dynasty . Yang Xiao-Lian, a provincial commander, asked Doctor Ip to treat his mother's persistent cough. They were so impressed that they created a factory to mass-produce it. Later, the Yang family sold the business to Tse Sui-Bong, a medicine practitioner. Nin Jiom Medicine Manufacturing was incorporated in 1962 to expand the business.

Today, Pei Pa Koa has annual sales of 45 million USD .


Pei Pa Koa is made up of a blend of herbal ingredients including the fritillary bulb , loquat leaf , ladybell root , poria cocos , pomelo peel ,chinese bellflower root , pinellia rhizome , schisandra chinensis seed , seed , coltsfoot flower , thinleaf root , bitter apricot kernel , fresh ginger , licorice root in a syrup and honey base.

Nan Jing (Chinese medicine)

The Huangdi Bashiyi Nanjing , often referred to simply as the Nan Jing, is one of the classics of traditional Chinese medicine . Written in the late Han dynasty, the Nan Jing is so named because its 81 chapters seek to clarify enigmatic statements made in the Huangdi Neijing. Among the contributions it makes to TCM are:

* The establishment of the “Qi Jing Ba Mai” .
* Establishment of the theory of Back-Shu, Front-Mu and Yuan-source points.
* Development of the Five-Shu Points theory, which is the basis for Five-element Acupuncture.
* First mention of ''deqi'', the energetic sensation a practitioner feels when reaching correct placement of an acupuncture needle.


Moxibustion is an oriental medicine therapy utilizing ''moxa'', or mugwort herb. It plays an important role in the traditional systems of China, Japan, Korea, Vietnam, Tibet, and Mongolia. Suppliers usually age the mugwort and grind it up to a fluff; practitioners burn the fluff or process it further into a stick that resembles a cigar. They can use it indirectly, with acupuncture needles, or sometimes burn it on a patient's skin.


The word "moxa" comes from ''mogusa'' . also serves as a synonym for moxa in Japan. uses the same character as ''mogusa'', but pronounced differently: ''ài'', also called ''àiróng'' .

The Chinese character for moxa forms one half of the two making up the Chinese word that often gets translated as "acupuncture" zhēnjiǔ .

Theory and practice

Practitioners use moxa to warm regions and acupuncture points with the intention of stimulating through the points and inducing a smoother flow of blood and qi. Research, for example at has shown that mugwort acts as an emmenagogue, meaning that it stimulates blood-flow in the and uterus. It is claimed that moxibustion militates against cold and dampness in the body and can serve to turn

Medical historians believe that moxibustion pre-dated acupuncture, and needling came to supplement moxa after the 2nd century BC. Different schools of acupuncture use moxa in varying degrees. For example a will use moxa directly on the skin, whilst a -style practitioner will use rolls of moxa and hold them over the point treated. It can also be burnt atop a fine slice of ginger root to prevent scarring.

Practitioners consider moxibustion to be especially effective in the treatment of chronic problems, "deficient conditions" , and gerontology. , one of the most famous semi-legendary doctors of Chinese antiquity and the first specialist in moxibustion, discussed the benefits of moxa over acupuncture in his classic work. He asserted that moxa could add new energy to the body and could treat both excess and deficient conditions. On the other hand, he advised against the use of acupuncture in an already deficient patient, on the grounds that needle manipulation would leak too much energy.

A huge classical work, ''Gao Huang Shu'' , specialises solely in treatment indications for moxa on a single point .

Note that Taoists use scarring moxibustion along with Chinese medical astrology for longevity.

Practitioners may use acupuncture needles made of various materials in combination with moxa, depending on the direction of qi flow they wish to stimulate.

Parallel uses of mugwort

In and South America, indigenous peoples regard mugwort as a sacred plant of divination and spiritual healing, as well as a . Mugwort amongst other herbs were often bound into smudge sticks. Europeans placed sprigs of mugwort under pillows to provoke dreams; and the herb had associations with the practice of in times.

Mellified Man

Mellified Man, or human mummy confection, refers to a legendary medicinal substance created by steeping a cadaver in honey. Allegedly from Arabia, mellified man was reported by 16th-century Chinese pharmacologist Li Shizhen in his Bencao Gangmu. It is described in the final section under the entry for ''munaiyi'' . Both European and Chinese pharmacopeias employed medicines of human origin, for instance urine therapy. Read suggests,
The underlying theories which sustained the use of human remedies, find a great deal in common between the Arabs as represented by Avicenna, and China through the . Body humors, vital air, the circulations, and numerous things are more clearly understood if an extended study be made of Avicenna or the Europeans who based their writings on Arabic medicine. The various uses given in many cases common throughout the civilized world, Lemery also recommended women's milk for inflamed eyes, feces were applied to sores, and the human skull, brain, blood, nails and "all the parts of man", were used in sixteenth century Europe.

Mary Roach publicized the pharmacological use of honeyed mummies in her book .
In the grand bazaars of twelfth century Arabia, it was occasionally possible if you knew where to look and you had a lot of cash and a tote bag you didn't care about to procure an item known as a mellified man. The verb "to mellify" comes from the Latin for honey, ''''. Mellified man was dead human remains steeped in honey. Its other name was "human mummy confection," though this is misleading, for unlike other honey steeped confections, this one did not get served for dessert. One administered topically, and, I am sorry to say, orally as medicine. The preparation represented an extraordinary effort, both on the part of the confectioners, and more notably, on the part of the ingredients.

Roach then quotes part of Read's translation, given below in full.

Li : According to 陶九成 in the 輟耕錄 , it says in Arabia there are men 70 to 80 years old who are willing to give their bodies to save others. The subject does not eat food, he only bathes and partakes of honey. After a month he only excretes honey and death follows. His fellow men place him in a stone coffin full of honey in which he macerates. The date is put upon the coffin giving the year and month. After a hundred years the seals are removed. A confection is formed which is used for the treatment of broken and wounded limbs. A small amount taken internally will immediately cure the complaint. It is scarce in Arabia where it is called mellified man.

Mr. has recorded it in this way but Li the author of this does not know whether it is true so he is recording it for others to verify.
Roach observes that Li Shizhen "is careful to point out that he does not know for certain whether the mellified man story is true."

Li uses Chinese ''tianfangguo'' for the location and ''miren'' for the name . ''Miziren'' is a modern synonym. Chinese ''minaiyi'' , along with "mummy" loanwords in many languages, derives through Arabic ''mūmīya'' from Persian ''mūm'' "wax" . Note that Japanese words of Portuguese origin says ''miira'' was borrowed from Portuguese ''mirra'', comparable with English ''myrrh''.

Citing Le Fèvre , Pomet , Wootton , and Thompson , Roach says the medicinal use of mummies, and the sale of fake ones, is "well documented" in chemistry books of 16th-18th centuries Europe, "but nowhere outside Arabia were the corpses volunteers."

Manfred Porkert

Manfred Porkert is a significant scholar of traditional Chinese medicine .

His extensive knowledge of many languages enabled him to develop a deep and comprehensive nomenclature of TCM-terms, based on ancient Greek and Latin words, for westerners to gain insight into TCM and its underlying philosophy. He is well-known for his 1974 book ''The Theoretical Foundations of Chinese Medicine: Systems of Correspondence'', from the MIT Press , where his translations from Chinese of traditional technical terms are explained.

He resides in Southern Germany and is a Professor Emeritus of the Ludwig Maximilians University of Munich.

Lung (TCM)

As distinct from the medical concept of Lungs, the concept of Zang from Traditional Chinese Medicine is more a way of describing a set of interrelated parts than an .

To differentiate between western or eastern concepts of organs the first letter is capitalized . Because Traditional Chinese Medicine is holistic, each organ cannot be explained fully unless the TCM relationship/homeostasis with the other organs is understood. TCM also looks at the functions of the organs rather than fixed areas and, therefore, describes different organs that are not actually physical, like the Triple Burner . This also leads to controversy about the validity of TCM, which comes a lot from the difficulty of translating and lack knowledge about TCM concepts and Chinese culture. So, to avoid conflict and to keep an open mind, please realize that these notions evolved in a different culture and are a different way of viewing the human body.

The Lungs is a Zang organ meaning it is a Yin organ. The other Yin, or Zang, Organs are the Kidneys Liver , Spleen , and Heart . Sometimes the Pericardium is included. Yin organs store, secrete, make, and transform Essence, Blood, Spirit, Qi, and Fluids. These nourish the body.

The Lungs connect with the throat and open into the nose. The Lungs govern Qi. They take in clear and expel the turbid Natural Air Qi . The Lungs regulate the waterways. Fluid secretion is sweat. The Lungs govern the skin’s surface and body hair. They house the Po. The peak time for the Lungs is from 3-5am.

Liver (TCM)

Distinct from the medical concept of Liver, the concept of the Liver in Traditional Chinese Medicine is more a way of describing a set of interrelated parts than an .

To differentiate between Western and concepts of organs the first letter is capitalized . Because Traditional Chinese Medicine is holistic, each organ cannot be explained fully unless the TCM relationship/homeostasis with the other organs is understood. TCM also looks at the functions of the organs rather than fixed areas and, therefore, describes different organs that are not actually physical, like the Triple Burner . This also leads to controversy about the validity of TCM, which comes a lot from the difficulty of translating and lack of knowledge about TCM concepts and Chinese culture. So, to avoid conflict and to keep an open mind, one must realize that these notions evolved in a different culture and are a different way of viewing the human body.

The Liver is a Zang organ, meaning it is a Yin organ. The other Yin, or Zang, organs are the Lungs , Heart , Spleen , and Kidneys . Sometimes the Pericardium is included. Yin organs store, secrete, make, and transform Essence, Blood, Spirit, Qi, and Fluids. These nourish the body.

The Liver Stores the Blood and allows for the smooth flow of Qi. The Liver’s blood is responsible for the repetitive cycles of human life, for example menstruation. The Yellow Emperor's Classic, or Nei Jing, describes the Liver as “the general of an army”. The Liver Stores the Hun. It opens into the eyes. It secretes bile, which is stored in the Gallbladder. The Liver is associated with anger and depression. It governs the tendons and . The peak time for the liver is between 1-3am. The Liver also determines the capacity for pain. The fluid secretion is tears.

Liu Wei Di Huang Wan

Liu Wei Di Huang Wan, also known as Liuwei Dihuang teapills , is a in traditional Chinese medicine and pharmacy. In Japanese kampo, it is known as "Rokumi-gan" . It is commonly made into Chinese patent medicine.


The formula was created by Qian Yi as dihuang pill . It was published in "Xiao'er Yao Zheng Zhi Jue" in 1119 by Qian Yi's student.

The formula was changed slightly when it was borrowed as a Japanese kampo formula. Some species of herbs were replaced with herbs found in Japan. For example, ''Alisma plantago-aquatica'' was replaced with ''Alisma orientale'' for .

Chinese classic herbal formula

Japanese kampo formula


Língzhī is the name for one form of the mushroom ''Ganoderma lucidum'', and its close relative ''Ganoderma tsugae'', which grows in the northern Eastern Hemlock forests. These two species of bracket fungus have a worldwide distribution in both tropical and temperate geographical regions, including North and South America, Africa, Europe, and Asia, growing as a parasite or saprotroph on a wide variety of trees. ''Ganoderma lucidum'' enjoys special veneration in Asia, where it has been used in traditional Chinese medicine as a herbal medicine for more than 4,000 years, making it one of the oldest mushrooms known to have been used in medicine. Similar species of ''Ganoderma'' have been found growing in the , according to Christopher Hobbs.

The word ''lingzhi'', in Chinese, means "herb of spiritual potency" and has also been described as "mushroom of immortality". while the specific epithet ''lucidum'' in Latin for "shining" and ''tsugae'' refers to being of the Hemlock ''''. Another Japanese name is ''mannentake'', meaning "10 000 year mushroom".

There are multiple species of lingzhi, scientifically known to be within the ''Ganoderma lucidum'' species complex and mycologists are still researching the differences between species within this complex of species.


Lingzhi is a polypore mushroom that is soft , corky, and flat, with a conspicuous red-varnished, kidney-shaped cap and, depending on specimen age, white to dull brown pores underneath.). However, the efficacy of these compounds in the treatment of cancer has not yet been shown in clinical trials. Moreover, as with any herb, variation between preparations and potential negative side effects cannot be ruled out. It is understood as adaptogenic, anti-allergenic and anti-hypertensive due to the presence of triterpenes. Apart from these properties, lingzhi has been found to be anti-inflammatory, antiviral, anti-parasitic, anti-fungal, antidiabetic, anti-hypotensive, and protective of the liver. It has also been found to inhibit platelet aggregation, and to lower blood pressure, cholesterol and blood sugar.

Because of these properties, lingzhi has been regarded as blood pressure stabilizer, antioxidant, analgesic, a kidney and nerve tonic. It has been used in bronchitis prevention and in cardiovascular treatment, and in the treatment of high triglycerides, high blood pressure, hepatitis, , chemotherapy support, HIV support, and even for and altitude sickness.

Some peer-reviewed studies indicate that ganoderic acid has some protective effects against liver injury by viruses and other toxic agents in mice, suggesting a potential benefit of this compound in the treatment of liver diseases in humans.

Although the experiences in fighting cancer are more inconsistent, the extract has been claimed to be effective in regressing tumors. The results depend on the type of cancer and the severity of the condition. It is usually recommended that it be used in combination with other prescribed medical treatments and as part of a fu zheng formula with a variety of supporting herbs. The Ganoderma extract has been employed to help substantially reduce or eliminate the side-effects of and if it is taken before, during and after the treatments. It has been found clinically to reduce side-effects like hair loss, nausea, vomiting, stomatitis, sore throat, loss of appetite and insomnia.


Because mushrooms contain chitin which locks up medicinal components, preparations of lingzhi are unlikely to be medicinally active unless there has been a prolonged hot water extraction. Simply tincturing the mushroom in ethanol or powdering it and encapsulating it makes preparations that are essentially inert and may account for some of the inconsistency in research results. Additionally, mushrooms traditionally incorporate or transform constituents from their host trees and mycelial fractions grown in sawdust or other substrate may differ appreciably from the whole fungus.

Lingzhi is traditionally prepared by simmering in water. Thinly sliced or pulverized lingzhi is added to a pot of boiling water, the water is then brought to a simmer, and the pot is covered; the lingzhi is then simmered for two hours. The resulting liquid should be fairly bitter in taste, with the more active red lingzhi more bitter than the black. The process may be repeated. Alternatively, it can be used as an ingredient in a formula decoction or used to make an extract . The more active red forms of lingzhi are far too bitter to be consumed in a soup, as long cooked shiitake mushrooms might be.

Side effects

It has been shown in some studies that long term use of ''lingzhi'' can result in some mild side effects, including dryness of the nasal passages, mouth and throat, as well as stomach upset and nosebleed. However, these effects were avoided by discontinuing use of the mushroom for one month after taking it for four months, and taking it again for four months, and so on.

Modern scientific studies

Numerous studies of lingzhi, mainly in China, Korea, Japan and the United States, have shown its effectiveness in the treatment of a very wide range of diseases and symptoms. But the studies have not given any explanation of exactly how lingzhi has so many diverse effects, because none of the known active components taken alone have produced results as powerful as the intake of lingzhi itself, suggesting synergy is important. For example, reports of lingzhi's effect on stamina, appetite, and other human conditions are largely anecdotal and haven't been studied scientifically. It is perhaps more comprehensible at this time to explain lingzhi's "miraculous powers" from the traditional Chinese medicine point of view.

In the West, scientists have traditionally separated and classified each disease meticulously, and have specialized in each of them to such a degree that it seems as if each disease is autonomous and standing alone. Oriental medicine, resulting from knowledge accumulated through 4,000 years of human observation, asserts that health can be maintained by sustaining the proper balance within the body and that diseases can be cured by restoring this balance through nutrition, including medicinal herbs, exercise and mental peace. Traditional oriental medicine believes that a disease is but the mere tip of an iceberg, the result of the underlying imbalance of the body which must be restored.

Observations have shown that lingzhi generally has only slight side effects and can be consumed in high doses, in parallel with other medications. Its main properties are adaptogenic which mean that it is nontoxic, it works in a generalized manner on the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and the neuroendocrine system. Its actions are alterative, enhance the immune system and lessen nervous tension. These properties are conducive to normalizing and balancing the body , and as a result, lingzhi is able to help the body cure a multitude of disease states from within.

Lingzhi has been found to strengthen the respiratory system and to have a healing effect on the lungs, and is particularly beneficial for individuals with asthma, cough and other respiratory complaints. At least one population study conducted in the 1970s confirms this claim. When more than 2,000 Chinese with chronic bronchitis took lingzhi syrup, 60 to 90% felt better within two weeks and reported an improved appetite, according to an article entitled, ''Medicinal Mushrooms'', written by Christopher Hobbs, and published in ''Herbs for Health, Jan/February 97''.

In Japan, after daily injections in mice with cancer it was reported that tumors in 50% of the animals had completely regressed within 10 days. The host-dependent anti-tumor activity has been subsequently confirmed to be from the polysaccharide fractions of Ganoderma by Sasaki ''et al.''. Multiple similar studies subsequently confirms this observation and anti-tumor efficacy of Ganoderma has been demonstrated from various species, at different stages of growth and using different solvents for extraction and different routes of administration. Anti-tumor activity has been demonstrated ''in vitro'' as well as in syngeneic tumor systems in animals. However, no human trials of Ganoderma against cancer in peer reviewed journals nor any controlled clinical trials in humans have yet been conducted or published.

There has been research showing lingzhi an effective supplement during chemotherapy or radiotherapy to reduce side-effects such as fatigue, loss of appetite, hair loss, bone marrow suppression and risk of infection. Ganodermas was shown effective against fatigue , hair loss , and bone marrow suppression . There is similar clinical evidence for other glucan BRMs applied in the setting of cancer chemotherapy or radiotherapy lending further support to the supplementation of Ganoderma in combination with cytotoxic cancer therapies. The recommended dose should be in the range of five to ten grams of fruiting body or equivalent per day .

In an animal model, Ganoderma has been demonstrated to effectively prevent cancer metastasis , and these results are comparable to those of Lentinan from shiitake mushrooms While only anecdotal or clinical data exists indicating ganoderma supplementation may enhance survival of ''human'' cancer patients, this survival advantage has been demonstrated for a number of comparable glucan BRMs like lentinan. Lentinan use in advanced gastric cancer demonstrated a significant life span prolongation advantage at 1, 2, 3 and 4 years in a randomized control trial . Lentinan is however injected. More appropriate for comparison to Ganoderma is perhaps PSK or PSP, which are orally administered. Mitomi ''et al.'' found significantly improved survival and disease-free survival in colorectal cancer given PSK supplementation over three years when compared to control in a multi-center randomized controlled trials.

Li Jun Feng

Master Li Jun Feng is a qigong master, the founder of Sheng Zhen Qigong and a world-renowned coach. He has also starred-in and choreographed several Chinese martial arts films.

Early life

Li Jun Feng was born in , , China . As a youth, he earned a position on the professional rifle team.

In 1960 he enrolled in Beijing Physical Education University’s department and was the captain of the school’s team. In 1964 he was featured in the French TV documentary ''Day in the Life of a Chinese College Student''.

Wushu Coaching Career

After graduation in 1965 he became a coach at Shichahai Sports School. In 1973 the Chinese Central Documentary Film House produced the documentary ''Beijing Sports School Team'' that includes footage of Li Jun Feng coaching a young Jet Li. After the school won the national competition in 1974, Beijing accepted Wu Bin’s and his proposal to establish the Beijing Wushu Team, a professional team consisting of students mostly from the Shichahai Sports School.

From 1974 to 1988 Li Jun Feng was a head coach of the Beijing Wushu Team. During this time the team won the national championship in the group category for 12 straight years and his students won 56 individual gold medals. In 1984 his students won 10 of the 16 gold medals at the National Competition in Shanghai, setting the record for the most number of gold medals won by a coach’s students. Li Jun Feng also traveled internationally as a national team coach and at the first Asian Championship in 1987 his team won 13 of 16 gold medals and 3 silver medals .

During his career as a coach, Li Jun Feng was awarded one Second Medal Certificate and four Third Medal Certificates from the State Physical Culture and Sports Commission. He was also the Deputy Director of the Chinese Coach Committee ; the Commissioner of the China Association; and Councilor to the China Society.

Film career

In 1982 Li Jun Feng was selected for the leading role in Wu Lin Zhi, a Chinese martial arts film, and was ultimately awarded a Chinese National Award for “Best Performance by an Actor in a Leading Role.” The film was selected as the “Motion Picture of the Year” by the Chinese Ministry of Culture, translated into five languages and released in the United States as ''The Honor of Dongfang Xu''. Li Jun Feng has appeared in three additional films, was a film action choreographer and hosted the television series, ''Learning Wushu'' .


In 1988 the Philippines Federation invited Li Jun Feng to become the national team’s head coach. He held the head coach position until 1991 where he began teaching qigong and full time. The team's greatest achievement came shortly after this, winning 10 gold medals at the 16th Southeast Asian Games in Manila.

Sheng Zhen Qigong

Li Jun Feng was first drawn to qigong and as a university student and has practiced and taught these disciplines throughout his adult life. He began practicing Sheng Zhen Qigong privately in 1987 and began teaching it in 1994. In 1995 the International Sheng Zhen Society was founded to promote Sheng Zhen Qigong to the world. Li Jun Feng is the society's chairman and principal teacher.

Since the founding of the International Sheng Zhen Society Li Jun Feng has taught Sheng Zhen Qigong in 25 countries spread across 6 continents. In 2002 Omni Film Productions created the documentary ''Quiet Mind: Healing Qigong'' about Sheng Zhen Qigong and Li Jun Feng. In 2002 Li Jun Feng moved to the United States and accepted a position teaching qigong at the Academy of at . He has delivered the keynote address at several conferences including the National Qigong Association Conference in 1999 and 2000; the International Psi Conference, Basle, Switzerland in 2005; and at the American Acupuncturist Association of annual conference in 2006 and 2007.

Li Jun Feng is a Counselor to the World Academic Society of Medical Qigong and an Advisor to the Qigong Science Research Association of China .


* Li, Jun Feng. ''Sparring with Long Fist & Single Broad Sword/Spear''. China, 1982.
* Li, Jun Feng. ''Learn Wushu Series''. China, 1985.
* Li, Jun Feng. ''Martial Arts on Ba Gua Zhang''. China, 1987.
* Li, Jun Feng. ''Sheng Zhen Wuji Yuan Gong: A Return to Oneness''. Manila, Philippines: International Sheng Zhen Society, 1995.
* ''Sheng Zhen Wuji Yuan Gong: A Return to Oneness'' . Manila, Philippines: International Sheng Zhen Society, 1996.
* Li, Jun Feng. ''Sheng Zhen Healing Qigong: Removal of Disease in Three Parts''. Manila, Philippines: International Sheng Zhen Society, 1999.
* ''Sheng Zhen Healing Qigong'' . Manila, Philippines: International Sheng Zhen Society, 1999.
* Li, Jun Feng. ''Awakening the Soul''. Manila, Philippines: International Sheng Zhen Society, 2008.

Large intestine (TCM)

As distinct from the Western medical concept of , this concept from Traditional Chinese Medicine is more a way of describing a set of interrelated parts than an anatomical organ.